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How a Research Paper Reflects Writing Abilities

The competency-based education project contemplated in the higher-level educational models of the institutions of our country has involved changing the vision of the teacher who teaches for the perspective of the student who plays. This new perspective conceives not only a new expression of learning outcomes but an epistemological and pedagogical conception that lead to a transformation of the educational process and its evaluation, which will be based on evidence, actions or constructions that allow us to discuss its scope, level of development and the paths for its improvement, based on results and actions seen both in the process and in the result.

The evaluation, from this approach, will then be based on criteria, which allow determining the level of development of said competence, observed in the product as in the process that facilitated its acquisition; looking like this, modified the traditional evaluation practice.

The evaluation based on competences is oriented to evaluate the process of performance of the students before activities or problems of the professional, social, disciplinary and research context, having as reference evidence and indicators that seek to determine the degree of development of such competencies in its three dimensions (effective-motivational, cognitive and procedural), to provide feedback on strengths and aspects to improve.

This always has a formative purpose, regardless of the context in which it takes place. It must always be participatory, thoughtful and critical. So in this context, evaluation is no longer a timely task, as is the case with traditional evaluation.

The competency-based evaluation has the following characteristics:

  1. It is a dynamic and multidimensional process carried out by the different educational agents involved (teachers, students, institution and society itself.
  2. Take into account both the process and the learning outcomes.
  3. Offers feedback results both quantitatively and qualitatively.
  4. Its horizon is to serve the ethical life project (personal needs, ends, etc.) of the students.
  5. Recognizes the potential, multiple intelligence and the zone of proximal development of each student.
  6. Based on objective criteria and socially agreed on evidence, also recognizing the subjective dimension that is always in every evaluation process.


The evidence can be of four types:

• Knowledge is based on knowledge, which allows extrapolation and the development of processes of understanding and analysis.
• By product. It is the result of a series of actions carried out by students and that are in a tangible result.
• For performance. It refers to the performance of students in certain activities within the educational process.
• By attitude. These are evidence that is generated from visible behaviors in the process and that is also related to the competition.

The assessment should recognize that students have different potentials, not focusing on the amount of knowledge acquired, but on the skills and processes closely related to the work and the skills-oriented to the development of students, in relation to professional and academic profiles determined. For this, it is important to adapt the strategies to the level of maturation of the student, and plan a projection, throughout each subject, of each course, and of the career.


How to evaluate competencies?

The competences can be assessed quantitatively and qualitatively, one of the instruments that are used is rubrics. To which we will focus on this document, in order to present the proposal of a rubric to evaluate procedural competencies in the elaboration of a research paper.

The rubric as an instrument of competence assessment

The rubrics are “a qualitative descriptor that establishes the nature of a performance”. These are a valuation matrix that facilitates the qualification of student performance, in areas that are complex, imprecise and subjective, through a set of graduated criteria that allow assessing the learning, knowledge and/or skills achieved.

They are designed to perform an objective and consistent evaluation of activities such as papers, presentations or written reports. They allow evaluating the competences related to synthesis, application, criticism, production of works, etc., explaining the greater or lesser domain of competition.

The rubrics are useful because they show students the different levels of achievement they can achieve, providing the aspects they must meet to obtain high levels of qualification. It also allows students to evaluate their own achievements (self-evaluation, hetero-evaluation), knowing the qualification criteria that will be evaluated.

These also allow the teacher an objective, fair and impartial evaluation of the students’ work through a scale that measures their skills and performance. They significantly shorten the time a teacher spends correcting the work of his students.

A good rubric evaluates performances in a valid and non-arbitrary manner based on their core characteristics and not the easiest to see, count or rate. It does not attempt to combine independent criteria based on the analysis of a large sample of each student’s work. It is based on descriptive language, noting the distinctive characteristics of each level, rather than relying on comparisons or estimating language (“excellent product” or “not so complete”).

When the rubric is used as a form of evaluation, it is important to provide a copy to the students, in order to evaluate their own progress in a task or project. The evaluation should not be aimed at obtaining a grade. The rubric is aimed at helping the student learn more and improve their final products based on a self-assessment.

It is important to give students time to review their work after a self-assessment; as well as allowing them to evaluate each other. Peer evaluation as self-evaluation is aimed at everyone improving their work, in this way, it is possible for the teacher to realize, how accurate and fair is the feedback they provide based on evidence that gives weight to their opinion when their evaluation is different from that of the teacher. Again, giving them time after evaluating peers is crucial.

After this evaluation by the students themselves, the teacher also evaluates them using the same rubric. When the teacher returns the rubric along with the work, the student will know what he did well and what he has to work on in the future.

Although the rubric is not aimed at obtaining a rating, it is also possible to do so, if it has to be done. Putting a grade with a rubric is relatively easy. The work that reflects the highest quality in all the criteria obviously takes 10, the one that falls in the lowest level takes 5 or 6 and so we can continue, according to the criteria to be evaluated and the quality of work weighting.
In this way, the rubric becomes a powerful evaluation instrument that can be considered in any teaching-learning process. Therefore, this text exposes the development of a rubric to evaluate competencies in the elaboration of a research paper, considering that the ability to know how to investigate is a training requirement for every higher-level student.



Research as a set of systematic, critical and empirical processes, aims to know the reality to generate scientific and technological knowledge that contributes to the improvement of a country. Its impact on the identification and study of theoretical, methodological, social and / or technological phenomena and problems has led to the competence in investigative skills in the curriculum of any medium-level, higher and postgraduate level curriculum.

Strengthening its acquisition provides the professional with the use of a systematic, reliable and objective methodology to use that knowledge for the benefit of humanity. Acquiring this competence is essential. The situation is that most of the time, this process is dense for most students, and complex to evaluate for teachers.

Therefore, the rubric to evaluate competencies in the elaboration of a research paper is an excellent educational option. From a psychological perspective, to design and apply a research paper conceives a process of cognitive construction of understanding the problem, of analysis, deduction, and induction, of integration, argumentation, and problem-solving, decision making, among others, accompanied by factors motivational and attitudinal.

It involves asking questions, objectives, and hypotheses that will later have to be checked. Beside a research paper, understand Professional Ways To Write a Persuasive Essay w In the field of education, having evaluation instruments that account for this process, contributes to improving the teaching-learning process of these contents.


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